The concept of the invisibility cloak for biology was introduced by T. Puvirajesinghe and S. Guenneau for prevention of diffusion processes of liposomal drugsin a publication from the Royal Society in March 2013, which was the first demonstration of « cloaking » or « invisibility » for life sciences, opening avenues for biochemical metamaterials. The objective of the BIOCLOAK project is to conceive a drug enrobed with concentric layers of graphene and pegylation which provide a cloaking effect to prevent diffusion, and also physical barriers to vulnerable to enzymatic degradation and macrophage clean-up in the transporting environment of the bloodstream. Therefore increasing the potency of the delivery drug molecule to the target site. This work is carried out in collaboration with the Cancer Research Center of Marseille (CRCM), Institute Paoli Calmettes, Fresnel Institute, Imperial College and Kings College London). Design and stimulations are out in Fresnel Institute and Imperial College London. Fabrication of the modified graphene drugs molecule carriers conjugated to antibodies (Antibody-DrugsConjugates, ADC) will be undertaken in the Department of Nanomedicine in Kings College London. Testing of the biological properties of the modified drugs will then be undertaken in the CRCM using the preclinical platform already specialised in testing pharmacokinetic properties of ADC therapies in collaboration with the TrGET preclinical platform and Institute Paoli Calmettes.
This work aims to improve the structure of ADC therapy. This type of therapy being the leading form of targeted therapy available which has already been licenced for patient use in 2003. (Zolot, Basu et al. 2013). This project is pertinent generic application to the industry of therapeutic antibody treatment, which is expected to pass 45 billion dollars in 2011 and exceed 58 billion in 2016 (source BBC Research 2012). The modified graphene ADCs would have advantages over liposome technology as there would provide a targeted therapy. There would also have advantages over nanotubes in terms of smaller size, so providing better tumour extravasation and better drug potency(Yuan, Dellian et al. 1995). Also entrapment of the drug structure with the graphene modified ADC provides advances over nanocarriers whereby the drug molecule is conjugated onto the surface of the nanoparticles or in pore (Mura, Nicolas et al. 2013).
Graphene was discovered in 2004 and awarded a Noble prize in physics to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov in 2010 .